Post Ww1 Middle East Agreements

Vereté describes how an argument with the Ottoman Empire on Egypt`s eastern border ended in 1906, when the borders were redrawn along the Rafa-Aqaba line and subsequently fear of an attack on Egypt led to increased strategic importance from “the Sinai hinterland, the west and the eastern puck at least to the Acre Dar`a line”. [42] [43] At the end of the war, the British and French established a common Occupied Enemy Territory Administration in Ottoman Syria. The British gained legitimacy for their continued control by obtaining a mandate from the League of Nations in June 1922. The formal purpose of the League of Nations` mandate system was to manage a part of the Ottoman Empire that no longer existed and had control of the Middle East since the 16th century, “until they were able to stand alone.” The civil administration of mandates was formalized in 1923, with the agreement of the League of Nations, as part of the British mandate for Palestine, which included two administrative areas. The country west of the Jordan River, known as Mandatory Palestine, was under direct administration of the United Kingdom until 1948. The country east of the Jordan River, a semi-autonomous region known during the Hijaz Hashemite family under the name Transjordanian, gained independence in 1946. The agreement, which grants the UK control over areas that roughly cover the coastal strip between the Mediterranean and the Jordan River, Jordan, southern Iraq and another small area that included the ports haifa and Acre, was allocated to allow access to the Mediterranean. France has taken control of southeastern Turkey, northern Iraq, Syria and Lebanon. Russia received Istanbul, the Turkish route and Armenia. The control powers have been left free to set national borders in their territories. New negotiations were expected to refer the international administration to discussions with Russia and other powers, including Hussein bin Ali and Sharif of Mecca. The third phase took place from the end of 1919 (in Egypt) until 1928 (in Syria), during which Britain and France recalibrate their policies. They reacted to the nationalist pushback.

This showed that the First World War had reduced their means and power. In the Arab countries of the former Ottoman, this phase unfolded in a context of nationalist anger, that the Sykes-Picot agreement and the Balfour declaration of the United Kingdom in correspondence between the Egyptian High Commissioner Henry McMahon (1862-1949) and the Sharif of Mecca, Husay ibn Ali (Husayn ibn Ali, King of Hejaz (around 1853-1931) to support an Arab kingdom after the war.