The EU and its member states are individually responsible for ratifying the Paris Agreement. There was a strong preference for the EU and its 28 Member States to simultaneously table their ratification instruments to ensure that neither the EU nor its Member States commit to fulfil commitments that are strictly the other` and there was concern that differences of opinion on each Member State`s share of the EU reduction target and the British vote to leave the EU would delay the Paris Pact.  However, on 4 October 2016, the European Parliament approved the ratification of the Paris Agreement and the EU tabled its ratification instruments on 5 October 2016 with several EU Member States.  Turkey and three major oil-exporting nations are among the seven countries that have not yet ratified the 2015 Paris climate agreement. Angola joined Kyrgyzstan and Lebanon and ratified in 2020, meaning the 190-nation agreement was formally approved by 197 nations. The Paris Agreement is an agreement within the framework of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that deals with the reduction, adaptation and financing of greenhouse gas emissions from 2020. The agreement aims to address the threat of global climate change by keeping global temperatures well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels this century and to continue efforts to further limit the temperature increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius.  Since then, Turkey has argued that it is a developing country and that it has gained special circumstances allowing it to opt out of the provision of financial resources. But it still cannot access climate money, a condition that President Recep Tayyip Erdogan has said must change if Turkey wants to ratify the deal. On November 4, 2019, the United States informed the custodian of its withdrawal from the agreement, which will take effect exactly one year after that date.  On 3 November 2016, Saudi Arabia ratified the Paris Agreement and its planned national contribution (INDC) became its NDC.
The NDC aims to reduce up to 130 MtCO2e (132 MtCO2e in AR4 GWP) per year by 2030 by contributing to economic diversification and reducing greenhouse gas emissions (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2015). Turkey is now the only G20 member not to have officially approved the agreement after it was ratified by Russia in October 2019. The Eiffel Tower in Paris, illuminated in green to celebrate the entry into force of the Paris Agreement, the most ambitious agreement in history, on November 4, 2016 (Photo: Jean-Baptiste Gurliat / City of Paris) Iran, Iraq and Libya – all among the Organization of 14 oil-exporting countries (Opec) – and conflict-torn states such as Yemen and South Sudan, have not ratified the agreement. Seven other states signed the Paris Agreement but did not ratify it. After ratification, the agreement requires governments to submit their emission reduction plans. Ultimately, they must play their part in keeping global temperatures well below 2 degrees Celsius above the pre-industrial period and making “efforts” to keep them at 1.5 degrees Celsius. However, in recent years, Saudi Arabia`s attitude towards climate change has shifted from systematic obstructionism to conditional acceptance. Under the principle that all countries have “common but differentiated responsibilities,” Saudi Arabia signed and ratified the Paris climate agreement the day before it came into force on 4 November 2016.
In September 2017, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology in Riyadh hosted the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change`s Outreach Regional Event, where plans for the Sixth Report and Evaluation Process were reviewed and the results of the fifth evaluation report presented. Climate scientist and founder of Germany`s New Climate Institute, Niklas Huhne, said Turkey was “reseming” the list of countries that do not yet need to ratify the agreement.